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HIV-2 Publications

Raugi DN, Nixon RS, Leong S, Faye K, Diatta JP, Sall F, Smith RA, Sall EI, Malomar JJ, Seydi M,Gottlieb GS; University of Washington-Senegal HIV-2 Research Group. HIV-2 Drug Resistance Genotyping from Dried Blood Spots. J Clin Microbiol. 2020 Oct 14:   PubMed

Gottlieb GS, Rosenberg JM, Gonzalez RG, Gandhi RT. Case 27-2020: A 53-Year-Old Woman with Headache and Gait Imbalance. N Engl J Med. 2020 Aug 27;383(9):859-866. PubMed

Sarr M, Gueye D, Mboup A, Diouf O, Bao MDB, Ndiaye AJ, Ndiaye BP, Hawes SE, Tousset E, Diallo A, Jones F, Kane CT, Thiam S, Ndour CT, Gottlieb GS, Mboup S. Uptake, retention, and outcomes in a demonstration project of pre-exposure prophylaxis among female sex workers in public health centers in Senegal. Int J STD AIDS. 2020 Oct;31(11):1063-1072. PubMed

Raugi DN, Ba S, Cisse O, Diallo K, Tamba IT, Ndour C, Badiane NMD, Fortes L, Diallo MB, Faye D, Smith RA, Sall F, Toure M, Sall EI, Diallo Agne H, Faye K, Diatta JP, Sy MP, Chang M, Diaw B, Sambou J, Bakhoum R, Sy MD, Niang A, Malomar JJ, Coombs RW, Hawes SE, Ndoye I, Kiviat NB, Sow PS, Seydi M, Gottlieb GS; University of Washington-Senegal HIV-2 Study Group. Long-term experience and outcomes of programmatic antiretroviral therapy for HIV-2 infection in Senegal, West Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Mar 30:ciaa277. PubMed

Tzou PL, Descamps D, Rhee SY, Raugi DN, Charpentier C, Taveira N, Smith RA, Soriano V, de Mendoza C, Holmes SP, Gottlieb GS, Shafer RW. Expanded Spectrum of Antiretroviral-Selected Mutations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2. J Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 11;221(12):1962-1972. PubMed

Ba S, Dia-Badiane NM, Hawes SE, Deguenonvo LF, Sall F, Ndour CT, Faye K, Traoré F, Touré M, Sy MP, Raugi DN, Kiviat NB, Smith RA, Seydi M, Sow PS, Gottlieb GS. [HIV-2 infection in Senegal: virological failures and resistance to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs)]. (FRENCH) Pan Afr Med J. 2019 Jul 18;33:222. PubMed

Bender AM, Simonetti FR, Kumar MR, Fray EJ, Bruner KM, Timmons AE, Tai KY, Jenike KM, Antar AAR, Liu PT, Ho YC, Raugi DN, Seydi M, Gottlieb GS, Okoye AA, Del Prete GQ, Picker LJ, Mankowski JL, Lifson JD, Siliciano JD, Laird GM, Barouch DH, Clements JE, Siliciano RF. The Landscape of Persistent Viral Genomes in ART-Treated SIV, SHIV, and HIV-2 Infections. Cell Host Microbe. 2019 Jul 10;26(1):73-85.e4. PubMed

Smith RA, Raugi DN, Wu VH, Zavala CG, Song J, Diallo KM, Seydi M, Gottlieb GS; University of Washington-Dakar HIV-2 Study Group. Comparison of the Antiviral Activity of Bictegravir against HIV-1 and HIV-2 Isolates and Integrase Inhibitor-Resistant HIV-2 Mutants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Apr 25;63(5):e00014-19. PubMed

Gottlieb GS, Raugi DN, Smith RA. 90-90-90 for HIV-2? Ending the HIV-2 epidemic by enhancing care and clinical management of patients infected with HIV-2. Lancet HIV. 2018 Jul;5(7):e390-e399. PubMed PODCAST

Smith RA, Wu VH, Zavala CG, Raugi DN, Ba S, Seydi M, Gottlieb GS; University of Washington-Dakar HIV-2 Study Group. In vitro antiviral activity of cabotegravir against HIV-2. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Jul 16. PubMed

Benzekri NA, Seydi M, NDoye I, Toure M, Kiviat NB, Sow PS, Hawes SE, Gottlieb GS; UW–Senegal Research Collaboration. HIV and the dual burden of malnutrition in Senegal, 1994-2012Int J STD AIDS. 2018 Jan 1. PubMed

Gottlieb GS, Raugi DN, Smith RA; University of Washington-Dakar HIV-2 Study Group. HIV Drug Resistance. N Engl J Med. 2018 Mar 1;378(9):874-5. PubMed

Ba S, Raugi DN, Smith RA, Sall F, Faye K, Hawes SE, Sow PS, Seydi M, Gottlieb GS; University of Washington–Dakar HIV-2 Study Group. A Trial of a Single Tablet Regimen of Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate for the Initial Treatment of HIV-2 Infection in a Resource-Limited Setting: 48 Week Results from Senegal, West Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 17. PubMed

Chang M, Wong AJ, Raugi DN, Smith RA, Seilie AM, Ortega JP, Bogusz KM, Sall F, Ba S, Seydi M, Gottlieb GS, Coombs RW. Clinical validation of a novel diagnostic HIV-2 total nucleic acid qualitative assay using the Abbott m2000 platform: Implications for complementary HIV-2 nucleic acid testing for the CDC 4th generation HIV diagnostic testing algorithm. J Clin Virol. 2016 Nov 23;86:56-61. PubMed

Tchounga BK, Hønge BL, Eholie SP, Coffie PA, Jespersen S, Wejse C, Dabis F, Geoffrey GS, Ekouevi DK; IeDEA West Africa collaboration. Effect of sex and age on outcomes among HIV-2-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in West Africa. AIDS. 2016 Nov 13;30(17):2707-2714. PubMed

Balestre E, Ekouevi DK, Tchounga B, Eholie SP, Messou E, Sawadogo A, Thiébaut R, May MT, Sterne JA, Dabis F; International Epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) West Africa Collaboration. Immunologic response in treatment-naïve HIV-2-infected patients: the IeDEA West Africa cohort. J Int AIDS Soc. 2016 Feb 8;19(1):20044. PubMed

Raugi DN, Smith RA, Gottlieb GS; University of Washington-Dakar HIV-2 Study Group. Four Amino Acid Changes in HIV-2 Protease Confer Class-Wide Sensitivity to Protease Inhibitors. J Virol. EPub: 2015 Nov 11.  PubMed

Benzekri NA, Sambou J, Diaw B, Sall el HI, Sall F, Niang A, Ba S, Ngom Guèye NF, Diallo MB, Hawes SE, Seydi M, Gottlieb GS. High Prevalence of Severe Food Insecurity and Malnutrition among HIV-Infected Adults in Senegal, West Africa. PLoS One. 2015 Nov 3;10(11):e0141819. PubMed

Smith RA, Raugi DN, Wu VH, Leong SS, Parker KM, Oakes MK, Sow PS, Ba S, Seydi M, Gottlieb GS; University of Washington-Dakar HIV-2 Study Group. The nucleoside analog BMS-986001 shows greater in vitro activity against HIV-2 in comparison to HIV-1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Sep 21. Pubmed

Smith RA, Raugi DN, Pan C, Sow PS, Seydi M, Mullins JI, Gottlieb GS; University of Washington-Dakar HIV-2 Study Group. In vitro activity of dolutegravir against wild-type and integrase inhibitor-resistant HIV-2. Retrovirology. 2015 Feb 5;12(1):10.  Pubmed

Ekouevi DK, Tchounga BK, Coffie PA, Tegbe J, Anderson AM, Gottlieb GS, Vitoria M, Dabis F, Eholie SP.  Antiretroviral therapy response among HIV-2 infected patients: a systematic review. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 26;14(1):461. PubMed

Hanisch RA, Cherne SL, Sow PS, Winer RL, Hughes JP, Feng Q, Gottlieb GS, Toure M, Dem A, Kiviat NB, Hawes SE; for the University of Washington-Dakar HIV and Cervical Cancer Study Group. Human papillomavirus type 16 viral load in relation to HIV infection, cervical neoplasia and cancer in Senegal. Cancer Epidemiol. 2014 May 19.  [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed

Hanisch RA, Sow PS, Toure M, Dem A, Dembele B, Toure P, Winer RL, Hughes JP, Gottlieb GS, Feng Q, Kiviat NB, Hawes SE; for the University of Washington-Dakar HIV and Cervical Cancer Study Group. Influence of HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infection and CD4 count on cervical HPV DNA detection in women from Senegal, West Africa.  J Clin Virol. 2013 Oct 18. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed

Ekouevi DK, Balestre E, Coffie PA, Minta D, Messou E, Sawadogo A, Minga A, Sow PS, Bissagnene E, Eholie SP, Gottlieb GS, Dabis F; IeDEA West Africa Collaboration. Characteristics of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 Dually Seropositive Adults in West Africa Presenting for Care and Antiretroviral Therapy: The IeDEA-West Africa HIV-2 Cohort Study. PLoS ONE. 2013 Jun 18;8(6):e66135. PubMed

Raugi DN, Gottlieb GS, Sow PS, Toure M, Sall F, Gaye A, N'doye I, Kiviat NB, Hawes SE; for the University of Washington-Dakar HIV Study Group. HIV-1 outcompetes HIV-2 in dually infected Senegalese individuals with low CD4 counts. AIDS. 2013 May 9. [Epub ahead of print]. 2013 Sep 24;27(15):2441-2450. PubMed

Raugi DN, Smith RA, Ba S, Toure M, Traore F, Sall F, Pan C, Blankenship L, Montano A, Olson J, Dia Badiane NM, Mullins JI, Kiviat NB, Hawes SE, Sow PS, Gottlieb GS; for the University of Washington-Dakar HIV-2 Study Group. Complex patterns of protease inhibitor resistance among antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-2 patients from Senegal: Implications for second-line therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Apr 9. [Epub ahead of print]. 2013 Jun;57(6):2751-60. PubMed

Gottlieb GS. Changing HIV epidemics: what HIV-2 can teach us about ending HIV-1. AIDS. 2013 Jan 2;27(1):135-7. PubMed

RA Smith, DN Raugi, C Pan, M Coyne, A Hernandez, B Church, K Parker, JI Mullins, PS Sow and GS Gottlieb, for the University of Washington–Dakar HIV-2 Study Group. Three main mutational pathways in HIV-2 lead to high-level raltegravir and elvitegravir resistance: Implications for emerging HIV-2 treatment regimens. 2012. PLoS ONE 7(9): e45372. PubMed

M Chang, GS Gottlieb, JA Dragavon, SL Chernec, DL Kenney, SE. Hawes, RA Smith, NB Kiviat, PS Sow, and RW Coombs. Validation for Clinical Use of a Novel HIV-2 Plasma RNA Viral Load Assay Using the Abbott m2000 Platform. 2012. Journal of Clinical Virology. 7/23/12  [Epub ahead of print]. 2012 Oct;55(2):128-33. PubMed

K Heitzinger, PS Sow, NM Dia Badiane, GS Gottlieb, I N’Doye, M Toure, NB Kiviat, SE Hawes and for the University of Washington-Dakar HIV and Cervical Cancer Study Group. Trends of HIV-1, HIV-2, and dual infection in individuals attending outpatient clinics in Senegal, 1990-2009. International Journal of STD & AIDS 2012; 23: 710–716. PubMed

PB Pavlinac, SE Hawes, GS Gottlieb, A Gaye, CF N’Diaye, CW Critchlow, PS Sow, Q Feng, NB Kiviat. HIV-shedding in the oral cavity: An assessment of HIV-type, immuno-virologic, demographic, and oral factors. Sex Transm Infect 2012;88: 45-50. PubMed

R Kong, H Li, F Bibollet-Ruche, JM Decker, NN Zheng, GS Gottlieb, NB Kiviat, PS Sow, I Georgiev, BH Hahn, PD Kwong, JE Robinson, and GM Shaw. Broad and Potent Neutralizing Antibody Responses Elicited in Natural HIV-2 Infection. J. Virol. published ahead of print on 26 October 2011. PubMed

Smith RA, Raugi DN, Kiviat NB, Hawes SE, Mullins JI, Sow PS, Gottlieb GS, 2011 Phenotypic Susceptibility of HIV-2 to Raltegravir: Integrase Mutations Q148R and N155H Confer Raltegravir Resistance. AIDS252235-41 PubMed

F Damond, A Benard, C Balotta, J Böni, M Cotten, V Duque, B Ferns, J Garson, P Gomes, F Gonçalves, G Gottlieb, B Kupfer, J Ruelle, B Rodes, V Soriano, A Taieb2 , M Wainberg, S Matheron, G Chene, and F Brun - Vezinet. An international collaboration to standardize HIV-2 viral load assays: Results from the 2009 blinded ACHIEV2E Quality Control assessment. 2011. J. Clin. Microbiol. ePUB August 3, 2011. PubMed

Gottlieb GS, Smith RA, Dia Badiane NM, Ba S, Hawes SE, Toure M, Starling AK, Traore F, Sall F, Cherne SL, Stern J, Wong KG, Lu P, Kim M, Raugi DN, Lam A, Mullins JI, Kiviat NB, 2011 HIV-2 Integrase Variation in Integrase Inhibitor-Naïve Adults in Senegal, West Africa. PloS one6e22204 PubMed

NN Zheng, MJ McElrath, PS Sow, A Mesher, SE Hawes, J Stern, GS Gottlieb, SC De Rosa, NB Kiviat. Association Between Peripheral γδ T-cell Profile and Disease Progression in Individuals Infected with HIV-1 or HIV-2 in West Africa. 2011. JAIDS ePub 3/17/11. PubMed

Gottlieb GS, Badiane NM, Hawes SE, Fortes L, Toure M, Ndour CT, Starling AK, Traore F, Sall F, Wong KG, Cherne SL, Anderson DJ, Dye SA, Smith RA, Mullins JI, Kiviat NB, Sow PS; University of Washington-Dakar HIV-2 Study Group. Emergence of multiclass drug-resistance in HIV-2 in antiretroviral-treated individuals in Senegal: implications for HIV-2 treatment in resource-limited West Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2009: 48:476–483. PubMed

Smith RA, Anderson DJ, Pyrak CL, Preston BD, Gottlieb GS. Antiretroviral drug resistance in HIV-2: three amino acid changes are sufficient for classwide nucleoside analogue resistance. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1323–1326. PubMed

Hawes SE, Sow PS, Stern JE, Critchlow CW, Gottlieb GS, Kiviat NB. Lower levels of HIV-2 than HIV-1 in the female genital tract: correlates and longitudinal assessment of viral shedding. 2008. AIDS 22(18):2517-2525. PubMed

GS Gottlieb, SE Hawes, KG Wong, DN Raugi, HD Agne, CW Critchlow, NB Kiviat, PS Sow. HIV-2 Protease, Reverse Transcriptase & Envelope Viral Variation in the PBMC and Genital Tract of ARV-naïve Women in Senegal. 2008. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 24(6); 857-864. Epub 6/10/08. PubMed

Gottlieb GS, Eholié SP, Nkengasong JN, Jallow S, Rowland-Jones S, Whittle HC, Sow PS. A call for randomized controlled trials of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-2 infection in West Africa.AIDS. 2008 Oct 18;22(16):2069-72; discussion 2073-4. PubMed

Mair C, Hawes SE, Agne HD, Sow PS, N’Doye I, Manhart L, Fu PL, Gottlieb GS, Kiviat NB. Factors Associated with CD4 Lymphocyte Counts in HIV-Negative Senegalese Individuals. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2008. 2008 Mar;151(3):432-40. Epub 11Jan2008. PubMed

Smith RA, Gottlieb GS, Anderson DJ, Pyrak CL, Preston BD 2008 Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 exhibit comparable sensitivities to Zidovudine and other nucleoside analog inhibitors in vitro. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy52329-32 PubMed

NN Zheng, MJ McElrath, PS Sow, SE Hawes, H Diallo-Agne, JE Stern, F Li, A Mesher, A Robinson, GS Gottlieb, Y Huang, and NB Kiviat. Role of HIV-Specific T Cell Immunity in the Control of Dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infection. J. Virol. 2007 Sep;81(17):9061-71. Epub 2007 Jun 20. PubMed

Gottlieb GS, Hawes SE, Nickle DC, Herbeck JT, Kiviat NB, Mullins JI, Sow PS 2007 Presenting plasma HIV RNA level and rate of CD4 T-cell decline. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association297805; author reply 806-7 PubMed

GS Gottlieb, SE. Hawes, HD Agne, JE. Stern, CW Critchlow, NB Kiviat, PS Sow. Lower Levels of HIV RNA in Semen in HIV-2 Compared to HIV-1 Infection: Implications for Differences in Transmission. 2006. AIDS. 20: 895-900.

ME Curlin, GS Gottlieb, SE Hawes, PS Sow, I Ndoye, CW Critchlow, NB. Kiviat, JI. Mullins. No Evidence for Recombination between HIV-1 and HIV-2 within the Envelope Region in Dually Seropositive Individuals from Senegal. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004. 20(9): 958-963. 

NN Zheng, NB Kiviat, SE Hawes, A Wilson, PS Sow; H Diallo-Agne, CW Critchlow, GS Gottlieb, L Musey, and MJ McElrath. Distinct T Cell Immune Specificities and Function in Control of HIV-1 or HIV-2 Infection in Senegalese Patients. J. Virol. 2004: 78(24): 13934-13942.

PS Sow, SE. Hawes, CW. Critchlow, MW McIntosh, A Diop, Mame B. Diouf, GS Gottlieb, AK Starling, AM Coll-Seck, NB. Kiviat. Characteristics And Presenting Complaints Of Outpatients With Undiagnosed HIV Infection: Potential Utility For Triage To HIV Testing. J. AIDS, 2004; 37:1520-1528.

Gottlieb GS, Sow PS, Hawes SE, Ndoye I, Coll-Seck AM, Curlin ME, Critchlow CW, Kiviat NB, Mullins JI 2003 Molecular epidemiology of dual HIV-1/HIV-2 seropositive adults from Senegal, West Africa. AIDS research and human retroviruses19575-84 PubMed

Gottlieb GS, Sow PS, Hawes SE, Ndoye I, Redman M, Coll-Seck AM, Faye-Niang MA, Diop A, Kuypers JM, Critchlow CW, Respess R, Mullins JI, Kiviat NB 2002 Equal plasma viral loads predict a similar rate of CD4+ T cell decline in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1- and HIV-2-infected individuals from Senegal, West Africa. The Journal of infectious diseases185905-14 PubMed

Gottlieb GS, Mullins JI 2001 Re: Follow-up study of intrahost HIV type 2 variability reveals discontinuous evolution of C2V3 sequences. AIDS research and human retroviruses171563-5, 1567 PubMed